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What Is Object Oriented Programming Language

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Object Oriented Programming Benefits

8.1: What is Object-Oriented Programming (OOP)? – Processing Tutorial
  • Scaleable and upgradable all data can be kept in one place.
  • Security using encapsulation and abstraction, complex code is hidden, maintenance is easier and protocols are protected.
  • Productivity makes it easy to maintain and reusable code.
  • Modularity encapsulation enables objects to be self-contained, and provides a clear modular structure for collaboration and troubleshooting code.
  • Reusability components can be reused through inheritance, the same code can be adapted and modified multiple times.

How To Explain Object

Everythings an object, right? Well, almost everything. The assertion that everything is an object is the concept which underlies object-oriented programming, or OOP for short.

The whole paradigm of object-oriented paradigm is the concept of objects. These objects contain data, which we also refer to as attributes or properties, and methods. Objects can interact with each other.

Object-oriented programming is one of the most complex parts of programming to learn and to teach. If it is so difficult to learn and to teach, how do you explain it to a kid?

When you explain coding to a child, its helpful to use something they already know. Its the same when you want to know how to explain object-orientated programming to a kid, you make it relatable.

In this guide we will delve deeper into how we can explain object-oriented programming to a child. We will deal with the basics of object-oriented programming, its main principles and how to easily explain them to a child.

In a nutshell, this is object-oriented programming in simple words and definitions that you can explain to kids.

What Are The Top Object

The software development world is ever-evolving, so programmers must constantly update their skills to stay relevant in the industry. Learning object-oriented programming languages is a way to avoid being out of touch. Plus, object-oriented programming is a widelyused programming paradigm in the industry.

Many programming languages come and go, but object-oriented programming remains stapled because it allows programmers to create self-contained code.

Additionally, OOP enables developers to model real-world objects like people, pets, or businesses in code, making software development and maintenance easier for developers.

Keep reading to understand the top object-oriented programming languages to learn in 2022.

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Example : Creating Class And Object In Python

class Parrot:    # class attribute    species = "bird"    # instance attribute    def __init__:        self.name = name        self.age = age# instantiate the Parrot classblu = Parrotwoo = Parrot# access the class attributesprint)print)# access the instance attributesprint)print)

Output

Blu is a birdWoo is also a birdBlu is 10 years oldWoo is 15 years old

In the above program, we created a class with the name Parrot. Then, we define attributes. The attributes are a characteristic of an object.

These attributes are defined inside the __init__ method of the class. It is the initializer method that is first run as soon as the object is created.

Then, we create instances of the Parrot class. Here, blu and woo are references to our new objects.

We can access the class attribute using __class__.species. Class attributes are the same for all instances of a class. Similarly, we access the instance attributes using blu.name and blu.age. However, instance attributes are different for every instance of a class.

To learn more about classes and objects, go to Python Classes and Objects

What Are Some Tenets Of Object

Structured programing vs. object
  • Objects comprise data that define its state and methods that define its behavior. Each object encapsulates these two entities.
  • The internal implementation of object methods is invisible to the user. This way objects abstract state changes under a simplified external API.
  • Objects are instances of classes. Classes are blueprints to build objects. The class of an object is also its type.
  • Classes can inherit both state and behavior from other classes. Based on this notion, objects of the subclass support casting into objects of the parent class.
  • This form of casting gives rise to polymorphism. The program can implicitly cast an object of a class to an object of the class’s ancestors.

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Objects Are The Building Blocks Of Object

Object-oriented programming, or OOP, is a programming paradigm that centers on objects and their related properties. Object-oriented programming relies on two basic concepts: class and object. A class defines the characteristics and behavior of similar objects, and an object based on a class inherits those characteristics and behaviors at runtime. Object-oriented programming is a great way to build applications that have reusable code and maintainability.

A class is a set of variables and methods that describe the behavior of an object of the same type. It also acts as a template for creating new objects. Each object in a class has a name, a brand, a set of features, a mileage range, and other properties.

In the same way, programs should encapsulate objects. That way, they can be reused without concern for the complexity of the underlying technology. This also makes modifying and maintaining code more accessible.

Instantiate An Object In Python

Open IDLEs interactive window and type the following:

> > > classDog:... pass

This creates a new Dog class with no attributes or methods.

Creating a new object from a class is called instantiating an object. You can instantiate a new Dog object by typing the name of the class, followed by opening and closing parentheses:

> > > Dog< __main__.Dog object at 0x106702d30> 

You now have a new Dog object at 0x106702d30. This funny-looking string of letters and numbers is a memory address that indicates where the Dog object is stored in your computers memory. Note that the address you see on your screen will be different.

Now instantiate a second Dog object:

> > > Dog< __main__.Dog object at 0x0004ccc90> 

The new Dog instance is located at a different memory address. Thats because its an entirely new instance and is completely unique from the first Dog object that you instantiated.

To see this another way, type the following:

> > > a=Dog> > > b=Dog> > > a==bFalse

In this code, you create two new Dog objects and assign them to the variables a and b. When you compare a and b using the == operator, the result is False. Even though a and b are both instances of the Dog class, they represent two distinct objects in memory.

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Object Oriented Programming Vs Functional Programming Vs Procedural Programming

There are other kinds of programming languages that are not object-oriented. The two main other types are functional programming and procedural programming.

  • Object oriented programming vs functional programming : FP creates pure functions, as opposed to concepts of shared state like OOP. It uses conditional expressions and recursion to perform computation. FP uses a fixed data structure, while OOP applies a variable one. Functional language examples include Lisp, Scala, Erlang, Haskell, and Clojure.
  • Object oriented programming vs procedural programming: With procedural programming, you solve problems from the top of the code down to the bottom. Unlike OOP, it treats data and methods as two different entities. Procedural languages include BASIC, C, FORTRAN, and Pascal.

Back to the table of contents

What Is The Structure Of Object

Object-oriented Programming in 7 minutes | Mosh

The structure, or building blocks, of object-oriented programming include the following:

  • Classes are user-defined data types that act as the blueprint for individual objects, attributes and methods.
  • Objects are instances of a class created with specifically defined data. Objects can correspond to real-world objects or an abstract entity. When class is defined initially, the description is the only object that is defined.
  • Methods are functions that are defined inside a class that describe the behaviors of an object. Each method contained in class definitions starts with a reference to an instance object. Additionally, the subroutines contained in an object are called instance methods. Programmers use methods for reusability or keeping functionality encapsulated inside one object at a time.
  • Attributes are defined in the class template and represent the state of an object. Objects will have data stored in the attributes field. Class attributes belong to the class itself.

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Is Java Purely Object Oriented

Java is not fully object oriented because it supports primitive data type like it,byte,long etc.,which are not objects. Because in JAVA we use data types like int, float, double etc which are not object oriented, and of course is what opposite of OOP is. That is why JAVA is not 100% objected oriented.

Object Oriented Programming :

ObjectOriented Programming is a modern programming approach in which programis thinks as of set of objects communicates to each other to get a work done.Like in real life we have multiple objects that depend on each other for get awork done.

So, the idea was to design a datathat has data and function that perform operation on that data. In C++ classesare the special data type that contains data called data member and functionthat perform operation on that data called member function. An object isinstance of class.

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Prevents The Repetition Of Data

Redundant data refers to data that has been duplicated. As a result, the same information is repeated. The redundancy of the data is seen as a benefit in object-oriented programming. For instance, the user would like the capability comparable to that of practically all classes.

In such circumstances, the user can construct classes with comparable functionality and inherit them when necessary. A significant benefit of OOP is the redundancy of data. Users who want a comparable feature in numerous classes can write standard class definitions for those features and inherit them.

Example : Creating Methods In Python

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class Parrot:    # instance attributes    def __init__:        self.name = name        self.age = age    # instance method    def sing:        return " sings ".format    def dance:        return " is now dancing".format# instantiate the objectblu = Parrot# call our instance methodsprint)print)

Output

Blu sings 'Happy'Blu is now dancing

In the above program, we define two methods i.e sing and dance. These are called instance methods because they are called on an instance object i.e blu.

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What Is The Difference Between Object Oriented Programming And Procedure Oriented Programming

  • In POP, importance is given to the sequence of things to be done i.e. algorithms and in OOP, importance is given to the data.
  • In POP, larger programs are divided into functions and in OOP, larger programs are divided into objects.
  • In POP, most functions share global data i.e data move freely around the system from function to function. In OOP mostly the data is private and only functions inside the object can access the data.
  • POP follows a top down approach in problem solving while OOP follows a bottom up approach.
  • In POP, adding of data and function is difficult and in OOP it is easy.
  • In POP, there is no access specifier and in OOP there are public, private and protected specifier.
  • In POP, operator cannot be overloaded and in OOP operator can be overloaded.
  • In POP, Data moves openly around the system from function to function, In OOP objects communicate with each other through member functions.

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Inherit From Other Classes In Python

Inheritance is the process by which one class takes on the attributes and methods of another. Newly formed classes are called child classes, and the classes that child classes are derived from are called parent classes.

Note: This tutorial is adapted from the chapter Object-Oriented Programming in Python Basics: A Practical Introduction to Python 3. If you enjoy what youre reading, then be sure to check out the rest of the book.

Child classes can override or extend the attributes and methods of parent classes. In other words, child classes inherit all of the parents attributes and methods but can also specify attributes and methods that are unique to themselves.

Although the analogy isnt perfect, you can think of object inheritance sort of like genetic inheritance.

You may have inherited your hair color from your mother. Its an attribute you were born with. Lets say you decide to color your hair purple. Assuming your mother doesnt have purple hair, youve just overridden the hair color attribute that you inherited from your mom.

You also inherit, in a sense, your language from your parents. If your parents speak English, then youll also speak English. Now imagine you decide to learn a second language, like German. In this case youve extended your attributes because youve added an attribute that your parents dont have.

How To Structure Oop Programs

Object Oriented Programming (OOP) in C++ Course

Lets take a real world problem, and conceptually design an OOP software program.

Imagine running a dog sitting camp, with hundreds of pets, and you have to keep track of the names, ages, and days attended for each pet. How would you design simple, reusable software to model the dogs?

With hundreds of dogs, it would be inefficient to write unique code for each dog. Below we see what that might look like with objects rufus and fluffy.

//Object of one individual dogvar rufus = 

As you can see above, there is a lot of duplicated code between both objects. The age function appears in each object. Since we want the same information for each dog, we can use objects and classes instead.

Grouping related information together to form a class structure makes the code shorter and easier to maintain.

In the dogsitting example, heres how a programmer could think about organizing an OOP:

  • Create a parent class for all dogs as a blueprint of information and behaviors that all dogs will have, regardless of type.

  • Create child classes to represent different subcategories of dog under the generic parent blueprint.

  • Add unique attributes and behaviors to the child classes to represent differences

  • Create objects from the child class that represent dogs within that subgroup

  • The diagram below represents how to design an OOP program: grouping the related data and behaviors together to form a simple template then creating subgroups for specialized data and behavior.

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    Features Of The Object

  • Emphasis is on doing rather than procedure.
  • Programs are divided into what are known as objects.
  • Data structures are designed such that they characterize the objects.
  • Function that operate on the data of an object are tied together in the data structure.
  • Data is hidden and can’t be accessed by external functions.
  • Objects may communicate with each other through functions.
  • New data and function can be easily added.
  • Follow bottom-up approach in program design.
  • What Is A Programming Language

    A programming language is a set of rules and procedures that allow programmers to give computers a set of instructions to execute. Every programming language has its own syntax, which, once learned, allows you to tell a computer what tasks it should perform.

    Think about it this way. English is a language that allows you to communicate with English speakers. When you know the basic rules of English, you can talk with anyone else who understands those same rules. But, computers cannot understand English or any other âtraditionalâ language for that matter.

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    Benefits Of Object Oriented Programming

    • Reusable & modular: You can write one function that can be used over and over again thanks to polymorphism and abstraction. Breaks down into objects and classes.
    • Highly secure: Security is built-in with encapsulation. For example, other methods and classes cannot access private data by default.
    • Easy to maintain code: Fix functions instead of manually fixing or changing tons of code.
    • Ability to develop code concurrently: Parts of programs can be developed separately from each other, making it easier to code on large software dev teams.
    • Fast development: Existing libraries of OOP objects are already available, so you dont have to reinvent the wheel.

    How Do You Understand Object

    Why Is Java Called Object Oriented Programming Language?

    Object-oriented programming is based on the concept of objects. In object-oriented programming data structures, or objects are defined, each with its own properties or attributes. Each object can also contain its own procedures or methods. Software is designed by using objects that interact with one another.

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    Difference Between Procedure Programming Language And Object

    Procedure programming language

    Example of Object oriented programming language

    c++, JAVA, PYTHON

    Object: Object are the basic run time entities in an Object-oriented system. An object means anything from the real world like a person, place, thing etc.

    Class: The entire set of data and code of an object can be made a user define data type with a help of a class. Object are variable of the type class.

    Encapsulation: The wrapping up of data and function into a single unit is known as encapsulation. Data encapsulation is striking of a class. The data is not accessible to the outside world, and only those functions which are wrapped in the class can access it.

    How Do I Learn Object Oriented Programming

    Ultimately, object oriented programming is about organization and saving time. With object oriented programming, you are able to break down monster programs into much smaller pieces of code, and youre able to reuse sections of code to save time in the long run.

    Object oriented programming is a useful tool for your toolbox. You can start to increase your skills through Udacitys Intro to Programming Nanodegree and learn the basics of programming with HTML, CSS, Python, and JavaScript with hands-on exercises and projects. Build confidence in your ability to think and problem-solve like a programmer to prepare for high demand tech roles.

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