F Martin Luther King Jr
As the unquestioned leader of the peaceful Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was at the same time one of the most beloved and one of the most hated men of his time. From his involvement in the Montgomery bus boycott in 1955 until his untimely death in 1968, King’s message of change through peaceful means added to the movement’s numbers and gave it its moral strength. The legacy of Martin Luther King Jr. is embodied in these two simple words: equality and nonviolence.
King was raised in an activist family. His father was deeply influenced by Marcus Garvey’s Back to Africa Movement in the 1920s. His mother was the daughter of one of Atlanta’s most influential African American ministers. As a student, King excelled. He easily moved through grade levels and entered Morehouse College, his father’s alma mater, at the age of fifteen. Next, he attended Crozer Theological Seminary, where he received a Bachelor of Divinity degree. While he was pursuing his doctorate at Boston University, he met and married Coretta Scott. After receiving his Ph.D. in 1955, King accepted an appointment to the Dexter Street Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama.
Early in the morning of April 4, 1968, King was shot by James Earl Ray. Spontaneous violence spread through urban areas as mourners unleashed their rage at the loss of their leader. Rioting burst forth in many American cities.
Chicago Open Housing Movement 1966
In 1966, after several successes in the south, King, Bevel, and others in the civil rights organizations took the movement to the North, with Chicago as their first destination. King and Ralph Abernathy, both from the middle class, moved into a building at 1550 S. Hamlin Avenue, in the slums of North Lawndale on Chicagos West Side, as an educational experience and to demonstrate their support and empathy for the poor.
The SCLC formed a coalition with CCCO, Coordinating Council of Community Organizations, an organization founded by Albert Raby, and the combined organizations efforts were fostered under the aegis of the Chicago Freedom Movement.During that spring, several white couple/black couple tests of real estate offices uncovered racial steering: discriminatory processing of housing requests by couples who were exact matches in income, background, number of children, and other attributes. Several larger marches were planned and executed: in Bogan, Belmont Cragin, Jefferson Park, Evergreen Park , Gage Park, , and others.
When King and his allies returned to the South, they left Jesse Jackson, a seminary student who had previously joined the movement in the South, in charge of their organization. Jackson continued their struggle for civil rights by organizing the Operation Breadbasket movement that targeted chain stores that did not deal fairly with blacks.
Structure To Cite A Transcript Of I Have A Dream Found Online In Apa :
Speaker Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. . Title of speech . Website Name. URL
Heres an example of how to cite a transcript of I Have a Dream found online in APA citation format:
King, M.L., Jr. . I have a dream . The Avalon Project. https://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/mlk01.asp
Heres an example of how to cite a speech in an in-text citation in APA 7:
Narrative: Last Name
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Dr King’s Final Speech In April 1968
“The time is always right to do right.”#MLK at Stanford in 1967:
King gave his last speech I have been to the mountaintop at Mason Temple in Memphis on 3 April 1968. Towards the end of his 43minute address, he said, Like anybody, I would like to live a long life. Longevity has its place. But I’m not concerned about that now. I just want to do God’s will. And He’s allowed me to go up to the mountain. And I’ve looked over. And I’ve seen the Promised Land. I may not get there with you. But I want you to know tonight, that we, as a people, will get to the promised land! The following day at 6 pm, he was assassinated at Lorraine Motel, he was 39 years old.
Below are a few examples of Dr. Kings writings and speeches which are available online at The King Center and through The King Institute Papers Project archives at Stanford University.
Why should one love his enemy? Because the process of hate for hate brings disaster to all involved. Because hate distort the whole personality. Because love has within in a redemptive power.
I do not come here with a message of bitterness, hate or despair. I come with a message of love and a message of hope. Press on and keep pressing. If you cant fly, run if you cant run, walk if you cant walk crawl!
The word, integration, is probably one of the best-known words in our language now. It is on the lips of statesmen of all races it is a big word in our society.
I Have A Dream Speech Origins
In preparation for his turn at the event, King solicited contributions from colleagues and incorporated successful elements from previous speeches. Although his I have a dream segment did not appear in his written text, it had been used to great effect before, most recently during a June 1963 speech to 150,000 supporters in Detroit.
Unlike his fellow speakers in Washington, King didnt have the text ready for advance distribution by August 27. He didnt even sit down to write the speech until after arriving at his hotel room later that evening, finishing up a draft after midnight.
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Robert F Kennedy’s Speech On The Assassination Of Martin Luther King Jr
On April 4, 1968, United States SenatorRobert F. Kennedy of New York delivered an improvised speech several hours after the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. Kennedy, who was campaigning to earn the Democratic Party‘s presidential nomination, made his remarks while in Indianapolis, Indiana, after speaking at two Indiana universities earlier in the day. Before boarding a plane to attend campaign rallies in Indianapolis, he learned that King had been shot in Memphis, Tennessee. Upon arrival, Kennedy was informed that King had died. His own brother, John Fitzgerald Kennedy had been assassinated on November 22, 1963. Robert F. Kennedy would be also assassinated two months after this speech, while campaigning for presidential nomination at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles, California.
Despite fears of riots and concerns for his safety, Kennedy went ahead with plans to attend a rally at 17th and Broadway in the heart of Indianapolis’s African-American ghetto. That evening he addressed the crowd, many of whom had not heard about King’s assassination. Instead of the rousing campaign speech they expected, Kennedy offered brief, impassioned remarks for peace that are considered to be one of the great public addresses of the modern era.
Criticism Within The Movement
King was criticized by other black leaders during the course of his participation in the civil rights movement. This included opposition by more militant thinkers such as Nation of Islam member Malcolm X.Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee founder Ella Baker regarded King as a charismatic media figure who lost touch with the grassroots of the movement as he became close to elite figures like Nelson Rockefeller.Stokely Carmichael, a protege of Bakers, became a black and disagreed with Kings plea for racial integration because he considered it an insult to a uniquely African-American culture.
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delivered his iconic I Have A Dream speech on August 28th 1963 at a civil rights rally in Washington DC that was officially known as the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.
The figurehead of the civil rights movement called for an end to racism in the US, which at the time was still segregated, both legally and in practice, in most areas of life.
Some of his most famous lines include I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed.
I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the colour of their skin but by the content of their characters.
Things You May Not Know About Mlks I Have A Dream Speech
Rolls Press/Popperfoto/Getty Images
On August 28, 1963, in front of a crowd of nearly 250,000 people spread across the National Mall in Washington, D.C., the Baptist preacher and civil rights leader Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. delivered his now-famous I Have a Dream speech from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial.
Organizers of the event, officially known as the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, had hoped 100,000 people would attend. In the end, more than twice that number flooded into the nations capital for the massive protest march, making it the largest demonstration in U.S. history to that date.
WATCH: The Power of Martin Luther King, Jr.’s ‘I Have A Dream’ Speech
Kings I Have a Dream speech now stands out as one of the 20th centurys most unforgettable moments, but a few facts about it may still surprise you.
1.) There were initially no women included in the event.
2.) A white labor leader and a rabbi were among the 10 speakers on stage that day.
King was preceded by nine other speakers, notably including civil rights leaders like A. Philip Randolph and a young John Lewis, the future congressman from Georgia. The most prominent white speaker was Walter Reuther, head of the United Automobile Workers, a powerful labor union. The UAW helped fund the March on Washington, and Reuther would later march alongside King from Selma to Montgomery to protest for Black voting rights.
3.) King almost didnt deliver what is now the most famous part of the speech.
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The I Have A Dream Speech
The address wasnt the first time King had spoken about having a dream and he is believed to have first talked about having a dream in a speech in 1960 to the National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People called “The Negro and the American Dream”.
A number of other speeches also reference his dream in the following years.
The March on Washington speech had several versions, written at different times and there is no one single draft but an amalgamation of several and was originally called Normalcy, Never Again.
During the actual speech, the gospel singer Mahalia Jackson shouted from the crowd: Tell them about the dream, Martin.
King departed from his prepared speech and improvised, punctuating his points with I have a dream.
In this, the most famous part of his speech, King described his dream of freedom and equality arising from the land of slavery and hatred.
Opposition To The Vietnam War
The black revolution is much more than a struggle for the rights of Negroes. It is forcing America to face all its interrelated flawsracism, poverty, militarism, and materialism. It is exposing evils that are rooted deeply in the whole structure of our society. It reveals systemic rather than superficial flaws and suggests that radical reconstruction of society itself is the real issue to be faced
Martin Luther King Jr.
We must recognize that we cant solve our problem now until there is a radical redistribution of economic and political power… this means a revolution of values and other things. We must see now that the evils of racism, economic exploitation, and militarism are all tied together you cant really get rid of one without getting rid of the others the whole structure of American life must be changed. America is a hypocritical nation and must put own house in order.
Martin Luther King Jr.
During an April 4, 1967, appearance at the New York City Riverside Churchexactly one year before his deathKing delivered a speech titled “Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence.” He spoke strongly against the U.S.’s role in the war, arguing that the U.S. was in Vietnam “to occupy it as an American colony” and calling the U.S. government “the greatest purveyor of violence in the world today.” He connected the war with economic injustice, arguing that the country needed serious moral change:
‘i Have A Dream’ Speech Legacy
Remembered for its powerful imagery and its repetition of a simple and memorable phrase, Kings I Have a Dream speech has endured as a signature moment of the civil rights struggle, and a crowning achievement of one of the movements most famous faces.
The Library of Congress added the speech to the National Recording Registry in 2002, and the following year the National Park Service dedicated an inscribed marble slab to mark the spot where King stood that day.
In 2016, Time included the speech as one of its 10 greatest orations in history.
What School Was Like In The 13 Colonies
The marvelous new militancy which has engulfed the Negro community must not lead us to a distrust of all white people, for many of our white brothers, as evidenced by their presence here today, have come to realize that their destiny is tied up with our destiny. And they have come to realize that their freedom is inextricably bound to our freedom. We cannot walk alone.
And as we walk, we must make the pledge that we shall march ahead. We cannot turn back. There are those who are asking the devotees of civil rights, “When will you be satisfied?”
We can never be satisfied as long as the Negro is the victim of the unspeakable horrors of police brutality.
We can never be satisfied as long as our bodies, heavy with the fatigue of travel, cannot gain lodging in the motels of the highways and the hotels of the cities.
We cannot be satisfied as long as the Negro’s basic mobility is from a smaller ghetto to a larger one.
We can never be satisfied as long as our children are stripped of their selfhood and robbed of their dignity by signs stating “for whites only.”
We cannot be satisfied as long as a Negro in Mississippi cannot vote and a Negro in New York believes he has nothing for which to vote.
No, no, we are not satisfied, and we will not be satisfied until justice rolls down like waters and righteousness like a mighty stream.
I have a dream today.
I have a dream today.
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Mahalia Jackson Prompts Mlk: ‘tell ’em About The Dream Martin’
Around the halfway point of the speech, Mahalia Jackson implored him to Tell em about the Dream, Martin. Whether or not King consciously heard, he soon moved away from his prepared text.
Repeating the mantra, I have a dream, he offered up hope that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character and the desire to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood.
And when this happens, he bellowed in his closing remarks, and when we allow freedom ring, when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of Gods children, Black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual: Free at last! Free at last! Thank God Almighty, we are free at last!’
Read A Brief Summary Of This Topic
, original name Michael King, Jr., , Baptist minister and social activist who led the civil rights movement in the United States from the mid-1950s until his death by assassination in 1968. His leadership was fundamental to that movements success in ending the legal segregation of African Americans in the South and other parts of the United States. King rose to national prominence as head of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, which promoted nonviolent tactics, such as the massive , to achieve civil rights. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964.
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An Openly Gay Man Organized The March In Less Than Two Months
Bayard Rustin is the most important leader of the civil rights movement you probably have never heard of, as LZ Granderson put it in his recent CNN column. Not only did he organize the march in a matter of months, Rustin is credited with teaching King about nonviolence. He also helped raise funds for the Montgomery bus boycott and helped found the Southern Christian Leadership Council.
During the time, his sexual orientation was known, and he was often in the background to prevent it from being used against the movement.
Fifty years after the march, Rustin, who died in 1987, will be honored with a posthumous Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Obama in November.
St Augustine Florida 1964
In March 1964, King and the SCLC joined forces with Robert Hayling’s then-controversial movement in St. Augustine, Florida. Hayling’s group had been affiliated with the NAACP but was forced out of the organization for advocating armed self-defense alongside nonviolent tactics. However, the pacifist SCLC accepted them. King and the SCLC worked to bring white Northern activists to St. Augustine, including a delegation of rabbis and the 72-year-old mother of the governor of Massachusetts, all of whom were arrested. During June, the movement marched nightly through the city, “often facing counter demonstrations by the Klan, and provoking violence that garnered national media attention.” Hundreds of the marchers were arrested and jailed. During this movement, the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was passed.