Tuesday, November 28, 2023

Machine Learning Natural Language Processing

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Install And Load Main Python Libraries For Nlp

Machine Learning Foundations: Ep #8 – Tokenization for Natural Language Processing

We have a large collection of NLP libraries available in Python. However, you ask me to pick the most important ones, here they are. Using these, you can accomplish nearly all the NLP tasks efficiently. This is all you need, well, mostly.

1. Natural Language Toolkit

It can be imported as shown:

# Install!pip install nltk

Import package and download model.

# importing nltkimport nltknltk.download

2. spaCy

It is the most trending and advanced library for implementing NLP today. It is many distinct features that provide clear advantage for processing text data and modeling.

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Let me show you how to import spaCy and create a nlp object. To load the models and data for English Language, you have to use spacy.load

# Importing spaCy and creating nlp objectimport spacynlp = spacy.load

nlp object is referred as language model instance

3. genism

It was developed for topic modelling. It supports the NLP tasks like Word Embedding, text summarization and many others.

!pip install gensim# Importing gensimimport gensim

4. transformers

# Installing the package!pip install transformers

In this article, you will learn how to use these libraries for various NLP tasks.

Controversies Surrounding Natural Language Processing

NLP has been at the center of a number of controversies. Some are centered directly on the models and their outputs, others on second-order concerns, such as who has access to these systems, and how training them impacts the natural world.

Nonsense on stilts: Writer Gary Marcus has criticized deep learning-based NLP for generating sophisticated language that misleads users to believe that natural language algorithms understand what they are saying and mistakenly assume they are capable of more sophisticated reasoning than is currently possible.

Deep Learning For Nlp: An Overview Of Recent Trends

In a timely new paper, Young and colleagues discuss some of the recent trends in deep learning based natural language processing systems and applications. The focus of the paper is on the review and comparison of models and methods that have achieved state-of-the-art results on various NLP tasks such as visual question answering and machine translation. In this comprehensive review, the reader will get a detailed understanding of the past, present, and future of deep learning in NLP. In addition, readers will also learn some of thecurrent best practices for applying deep learning in NLP. Some topics include:

  • The rise of distributed representations
  • Convolutional, recurrent, and recursive neural networks
  • Applications in reinforcement learning
  • Recent development in unsupervised sentence representation learning
  • Combining deep learning models with memory-augmenting strategies

What is NLP?

Natural language processing deals with building computational algorithms to automatically analyze and represent human language. NLP-based systems have enabled a wide range of applications such as Googles powerful search engine, and more recently, Amazons voice assistant named Alexa. NLP is also useful to teach machines the ability to perform complex natural language related tasks such as machine translation and dialogue generation.

Distributed Representations

Convolutional Neural Network

Recurrent Neural Network

Overall, RNNs are used for many NLP applications such as:

Attention Mechanism

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Statistical Nlp Machine Learning And Deep Learning

The earliest NLP applications were hand-coded, rules-based systems that could perform certain NLP tasks, but couldn’t easily scale to accommodate a seemingly endless stream of exceptions or the increasing volumes of text and voice data.

Enter statistical NLP, which combines computer algorithms with machine learning and deep learning models to automatically extract, classify, and label elements of text and voice data and then assign a statistical likelihood to each possible meaning of those elements. Today, deep learning models and learning techniques based on convolutional neural networks and recurrent neural networks enable NLP systems that ‘learn’ as they work and extract ever more accurate meaning from huge volumes of raw, unstructured, and unlabeled text and voice data sets.

For a deeper dive into the nuances between these technologies and their learning approaches, see AI vs. Machine Learning vs. Deep Learning vs. Neural Networks: Whats the Difference?

Natural language processing is the driving force behind machine intelligence in many modern real-world applications. Here are a few examples:

Is Nlp A Part Of Deep Learning

Introduction to Natural Language Processing (NLP)

The image below shows how Artificial intelligence, Machine learning, Natural language processing, and Deep learning are interrelated.

Deep learning is a sub-field of machine learning that uses ANNs or artificial neural networks and large datasets to mimic the functionality of a human neural system and recognize patterns that can then be used for decision making. NLP aims to open communication between humans and machines, making human languages accessible to computers in real-time scenarios.

Natural language processing and deep learning are both parts of artificial intelligence. While we are using NLP to redefine how machines understand human languages and behavior, Deep learning is enriching NLP applications. Deep learning and vector-mapping make natural language processing more accurate without the need for much human intervention. Given the vast amount of data available deep learning can be used for unsupervised learning for NLP.

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S: Rules Statistics Neural Networks

In the early days, many language-processing systems were designed by symbolic methods, i.e., the hand-coding of a set of rules, coupled with a dictionary lookup: such as by writing grammars or devising heuristic rules for stemming.

More recent systems based on machine-learning algorithms have many advantages over hand-produced rules:

Despite the popularity of machine learning in NLP research, symbolic methods are still commonly used:

  • when the amount of training data is insufficient to successfully apply machine learning methods, e.g., for the machine translation of low-resource languages such as provided by the Apertium system,
  • for preprocessing in NLP pipelines, e.g., tokenization, or
  • for postprocessing and transforming the output of NLP pipelines, e.g., for knowledge extraction from syntactic parses.

How To Get Started In Natural Language Processing

If you are just starting out, many excellent courses can help.

If you want to learn more about NLP, try reading research papers. Work through the papers that introduced the models and techniques described in this article. Most are easy to find on arxiv.org. You might also take a look at these resources:

  • The Batch: A weekly newsletter that tells you what matters in AI. Its the best way to keep up with developments in deep learning.
  • NLP News: A newsletter from Sebastian Ruder, a research scientist at Google, focused on whats new in NLP.
  • Papers with Code: A web repository of machine learning research, tasks, benchmarks, and datasets.

We highly recommend learning to implement basic algorithms in Python. The next step is to take an open-source implementation and adapt it to a new dataset or task.

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What Is Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence or AI is a broad term used to refer to any technology that can make machines think and learn from tasks and solve problems like humans. Anything that makes a machine smart is referred to as artificial intelligence. The application of this technology encompasses everything from advanced web search engines like Google, the recommendations systems used by Amazon, Netflix, Youtube, virtual assistants like Alexa or Siri, the self-driving Tesla cars, and so on.

Statistical Nlp And Machine Learning

Introduction To Natural Language Processing | Machine Learning Projects | Eduonix

The earliest natural language processing/ machine learning applications were hand-coded by skilled programmers, utilizing rules-based systems to perform certain NLP/ ML functions and tasks. However, they could not easily scale upwards to be applied to an endless stream of data exceptions or the increasing volume of digital text and voice data.

Statistical NLP/ ML combines both computer algorithms with machine learning and deep learning automated models to systematically extract, compartmentalize, and digitally label text and voice data segments – and then allocate a statistical probability to each possible meaning of those segments.

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Automatic Text Condensing And Summarisation

Automatic text condensing and summarization processes are those tasks used for reducing a portion of text to a more succinct and more concise version. This process happens by extracting the main concepts and preserving the precise meaning of the content. This application of natural language processing is used to create the latest news headlines, sports result snippets via a webpage search and newsworthy bulletins of key daily financial market reports.

What Is Natural Language Processing Good For

NLP algorithms have a variety of uses. Basically, they allow developers and businesses to create a software that understands human language. Due to the complicated nature of human language, NLP can be difficult to learn and implement correctly. However, with the knowledge gained from this article, you will be better equipped to use NLP successfully, no matter your use case.

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Emotion And Sentiment Analysis

Sentiment or emotive analysis uses both natural language processing and machine learning to decode and analyze human emotions within subjective data such as news articles and influencer tweets. Positive, adverse, and impartial viewpoints can be readily identified to determine the consumer’s feelings towards a product, brand, or a specific service. Automatic sentiment analysis is employed to measure public or customer opinion, monitor a brand’s reputation, and further understand a customer’s overall experience.

Financial markets are sensitive domains heavily influenced by human sentiment and emotion. Negative presumptions can lead to stock prices dropping, while positive sentiment could trigger investors to purchase more of a company’s stock, thereby causing share prices to rise.

Sample Of Nlp Preprocessing Techniques

Applied Natural Language Processing with Python : Implementing Machine ...

Tokenization: Tokenization splits raw text into a sequence of tokens, such as words or subword pieces. Tokenization is often the first step in an NLP processing pipeline. Tokens are commonly recurring sequences of text that are treated as atomic units in later processing. They may be words, subword units called morphemes , or even individual characters.

Bag-of-words models: Bag-of-words models treat documents as unordered collections of tokens or words . Because they completely ignore word order, bag-of-words models will confuse a sentence such as dog bites man with man bites dog. However, bag-of-words models are often used for efficiency reasons on large information retrieval tasks such as search engines. They can produce close to state-of-the-art results with longer documents.

Stop word removal: A stop word is a token that is ignored in later processing. They are typically short, frequent words such as a, the, or an. Bag-of-words models and search engines often ignore stop words in order to reduce processing time and storage within the database. Deep neural networks typically do take word-order into account and do not do stop word removal because stop words can convey subtle distinctions in meaning .

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Nlp Libraries And Development Environments

Here are examples of some popular NLP libraries.

TensorFlow and PyTorch: These are the two most popular deep learning toolkits. They are freely available for research and commercial purposes. While they support multiple languages, their primary language is Python. They come with large libraries of prebuilt components, so even very sophisticated deep learning NLP models often only require plugging these components together. They also support high-performance computing infrastructure, such as clusters of machines with graphical processor unit accelerators. They have excellent documentation and tutorials.

AllenNLP: This is a library of high-level NLP components implemented in PyTorch and Python. The documentation is excellent.

HuggingFace: This company distributes hundreds of different pretrained Deep Learning NLP models, as well as a plug-and-play software toolkit in TensorFlow and PyTorch that enables developers to rapidly evaluate how well different pretrained models perform on their specific tasks.

Spark NLP: Spark NLP is an open source text processing library for advanced NLP for the Python, Java, and Scala programming languages. Its goal is to provide an application programming interface for natural language processing pipelines. It offers pretrained neural network models, pipelines, and embeddings, as well as support for training custom models.

What Is Natural Language Processing Used For

NLP is used for a wide variety of language-related tasks, including answering questions, classifying text in a variety of ways, and conversing with users.

Here are 11 tasks that can be solved by NLP:

  • Sentiment analysis is the process of classifying the emotional intent of text. Generally, the input to a sentiment classification model is a piece of text, and the output is the probability that the sentiment expressed is positive, negative, or neutral. Typically, this probability is based on either hand-generated features, word n-grams, TF-IDF features, or using deep learning models to capture sequential long- and short-term dependencies. Sentiment analysis is used to classify customer reviews on various online platforms as well as for niche applications like identifying signs of mental illness in online comments.
  • Question answering deals with answering questions posed by humans in a natural language. One of the most notable examples of question answering was Watson, which in 2011 played the television game-show Jeopardy against human champions and won by substantial margins. Generally, question-answering tasks come in two flavors:
  • Multiple choice: The multiple-choice question problem is composed of a question and a set of possible answers. The learning task is to pick the correct answer.
  • Open domain: In open-domain question answering, the model provides answers to questions in natural language without any options provided, often by querying a large number of texts.
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    Our Nlp Machine Learning Classifier

    We combine all the above-discussed sections to build a Spam-Ham Classifier.

    Random forest provides 97.7 percent accuracy. We obtain a high-value F1-score from the model. This confusion matrix tells us that we correctly predicted 965 hams and 123 spams. We incorrectly identified zero hams as spams and 26 spams were incorrectly predicted as hams. This margin of error is justifiable given the fact that detecting spams as hams is preferable to potentially losing important hams to an SMS spam filter.

    Spam filters are just one example of NLP you encounter every day. Here are others that influence your life each day . Hopefully this tutorial will help you try more of these out for yourself.

    • Email spam filters your junk folder

    • Auto-correct text messages, word processors

    • Predictive text search engines, text messages

    • Speech recognition digital assistants like Siri, Alexa

    • Information retrieval Google finds relevant and similar results

    • Information extraction Gmail suggests events from emails to add on your calendar

    • Machine translation Google Translate translates language from one language to another

    • Text simplification Rewordify simplifies the meaning of sentences

    • Sentiment analysis Hater News gives us the sentiment of the user

    • Text summarization Reddits autotldr gives a summary of a submission

    • Query response IBM Watsons answers to a question

    • Natural language generation generation of text from image or video data

    Natural Language Processing Projects

    Natural Language Processing (NLP) & Text Mining Tutorial | Machine Learning Tutorial | Simplilearn

    Build your own social media monitoring tool

  • Start by using the algorithm Retrieve Tweets With Keyword to capture all mentions of your brand name on Twitter. In our case, we search for mentions of Algorithmia.
  • Then, pipe the results into the Sentiment Analysis algorithm, which will assign a sentiment rating from 0-4 for each string .
  • Use NLP to build your own RSS reader

    You can build a machine learning RSS reader in less than 30 minutes using the follow algorithms:

  • ScrapeRSS to grab the title and content from an RSS feed.
  • Html2Text to keep the important text, but strip all the HTML from the document.
  • AutoTag uses latent dirichlet allocation to identify relevant keywords from the text.
  • Sentiment Analysis is then used to identify if the article is positive, negative, or neutral.
  • Summarizer is finally used to identify the key sentences.
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    Working With Text Is Important Under

    We are awash with text, from books, papers, blogs, tweets, news, and increasingly text from spoken utterances.

    Every day, I get questions asking how to develop machine learning models for text data.

    Working with text is hard as it requires drawing upon knowledge from diverse domains such as linguistics, machine learning, statistical natural language processing, and these days, deep learning.

    The Problem with Text

    The problem with modeling text is that it is messy, and machine learning algorithms prefer well defined fixed-length inputs and outputs.

    Machine learning algorithms cannot work with raw text directly the text must be converted into numbers. Specifically, vectors of numbers.

    This is called feature extraction or feature encoding and this is one of the key areas where deep learning is really shaking things up.

    Natural Language Processing Defined

    Natural language processing is a branch of artificial intelligence that enables computers to comprehend, generate, and manipulate human language. Natural language processing has the ability to interrogate the data with natural language text or voice. This is also called language in. Most consumers have probably interacted with NLP without realizing it. For instance, NLP is the core technology behind virtual assistants, such as the Oracle Digital Assistant , Siri, Cortana, or Alexa. When we ask questions of these virtual assistants, NLP is what enables them to not only understand the users request, but to also respond in natural language. NLP applies both to written text and speech, and can be applied to all human languages. Other examples of tools powered by NLP include web search, email spam filtering, automatic translation of text or speech, document summarization, sentiment analysis, and grammar/spell checking. For example, some email programs can automatically suggest an appropriate reply to a message based on its contentthese programs use NLP to read, analyze, and respond to your message.

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