Economic And Monetary Union
The creation of a became an official objective of the European Economic Community in 1969. In 1992, having negotiated the structure and procedures of a currency union, the member states signed the and were legally bound to fulfil the agreed-on rules including the if they wanted to join the . The states wanting to participate had first to join the . To prevent the joining states from getting into financial trouble or crisis after entering the monetary union, they were obliged in the Maastricht treaty to fulfil important financial obligations and procedures, especially to show budgetary discipline and a high degree of sustainable economic convergence, as well as to avoid excessive government deficits and limit the government debt to a sustainable level, as agreed in the .
Capital Markets Union and financial institutions
Free movement of capital is intended to permit movement of investments such as property purchases and buying of shares between countries. Until the drive towards the development of the capital provisions had been slow. Post-Maastricht there has been a rapidly developing corpus of ECJ judgements regarding this initially neglected freedom. The free movement of capital is unique insofar as it is granted equally to non-member states.
Eurozone and banking union
Legal Provisions Concerning The Linguistic Integration Of Migrants
Since 1993, the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports has run preparatory classes for pre-primary age children to address the issue of migrants. At national level, an integration programme has been launched which aims to help migrants settle into society. Via the programme, the State takes the initiative in helping migrants find permanent accommodation and learn Czech. The programme was initiated by the Home Office, but NGOs and not-for-profit organisations assist in its implementation. Lessons in Czech provided through this programme are free and must be offered to the migrant by the MSMT within 30 days of any decision on whether to grant asylum.
Foreign Languages Taught In Prague And The Czech Republic
Other than Czech, the native language of the Czech Republic, its minority languages and the large array of immigration languages, Czechs also learn to speak foreign languages in school.
In communist times, Russian was one of the most common second languages to be taught in school, but after the end of the Soviet Union, Russian has become a lot less popular. Today the first choice among school students is English. After English follows the language of Czechia’s neighbor, Germany and only then Russia.
Other languages like Spanish and French are studied as well, but the amount of young people archiving fluency in these languages are limited.
At a national scale, close to 12% of Czechs consider themselves English speakers. Most of these are to be found in the big cities like Prague and especially in the tourist sector.
German follows close behind with a little under 9% of the total Czech population speaking the language.
Russian is spoken by mostly the older generation, but it still counts for about 7% of the Czech population.
Read Also: Spanish Language Schools Costa Rica
Minority Languages Prague And The Czech Republic
Like most countries, the Czech Republic has more than one “local” language even though Czech is the official tongue of the country. In the capital, Prague, all the local minority languages are represented even though the percentages might not be the same as in the rest of the country.
The minority languages officially recognized in the Czech Republic are:
In the following I’ll try briefly getting into each of these languages and their status in the Czech Republic as well as in Prague.
Teaching Foreign Languages Within The Education System
Since the 2006/7 school year, the first modern foreign language has been introduced as compulsory from the age of eight/nine in primary schools. It is possible to start even earlier, at the age of six or seven.
Since 2012/13 two compulsory foreign languages have been introduced within basic education, one within primary school and one within lower secondary school . The choice of languages is quite wide. English prevails as the first foreign language followed by German and French. German is the most frequently taken-up second foreign language followed by French, Italian, Spanish and Russian. If the school has sufficient conditions and if there is sufficient student demand, other languages may be offered as a second foreign language.
Upper secondary general schools may offer a third foreign language as an optional subject in all grades provided the school includes this third language into its school education programme.
Some nursery schools may introduce a foreign language . These schools may include a foreign language into their own individual education programmes which each school has to develop on the basis of Framework Education Programme for Pre-Primary Education.
A standardised part of the compulsory upper secondary school-leaving exam taken in a foreign language was introduced in 2012.
You May Like: 10 Toys That Promote Speech And Language Development
Czech Language / Preparatory Courses Abroad
1. LANGUAGE COURSES ORGANISED BY CZECH CENTRES ABROAD
The Czech language is being taught at 15 Czech Centres abroad . Czech Centres provide language courses at CEFR levels A1 C1. In cooperation with the Institute for Language and Preparatory Studies at the Charles University, the Centres organise an internationally accredited examination in the Czech language at their 9 branches located abroad. Czech language courses are sometimes organised also by Czech diplomatic missions abroad.
2. LANGUAGE COURSES OFFERED WITHIN THE SUPPORT OF THE CZECH CULTURAL HERITAGE ABROAD
The Programme to support the Czech cultural heritage abroad helps to improve the awareness of the Czech cultural heritage, primarily by sending lecturers of the Czech language to foreign universities or providing support to compatriot communities abroad.
Each year the Czech Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports offers a number of scholarships for participation in the four-week Czech language course for Czech compatriots who live abroad and would like to learn or improve the Czech language skills. The course gives them the opportunity to familiarise themselves with the Czech culture and get to know part of the Czech Republic.
Intriguing Facts About The Czech Language
The Czech language doesn’t have the same name recognition as more widely spoken languages like French or Spanish. However, it’s an interesting language in its own right. Whether you’re planning a visit to Prague, planning a business trip to the Czech Republic or just want to learn more, here are 8 intriguing facts about the Czech language.
the czech language has over 10 million native speakers around the world.
Czech is the official language of the Czech Republic. However, its also recognized as a minority language in Poland, Serbia, Ukraine, Slovakia, Bulgaria, and Austria.
according to the us census bureau, as of 2013, over 47,000 czech speakers were living in the united states.
Czech is not one of the most commonly spoken languages in the US as a whole, but there are thriving Czech communities in places like the following:
- Masaryktown, Florida, where just over 3% of the population was born in the Czech Republic.
- Mifflinville, Pennsylvania, where 2.2% are from the Czech Republic.
- Gulf Shores, Alabama: 2.1% from the Czech Republic.
- North Riverside, Illinois and Sharon Springs, New York: 2.0% of residents are Czech-born.
Meanwhile, large communities of Americans descended from Czech immigrants still live in Texas, Nebraska and Wisconsin.
czech is mutually intelligible with slovak.
the czech language almost disappeared in the 17th century.
czech and croation are the only languages not to use a variation of the indigenous australian word for kangaroo.
Don’t Miss: How Do You Change Language On Amazon
Financial Support Mechanisms Aimed At Encouraging The Use Of National And Regional Or Minority Languages
On an annual basis, the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport announces a Call for submissions of grant applications to support minority language education and multicultural education. Based on the selection process results, additional resources are allocated to increase the offer of especially less taught and minority languages.
Is English Spoken In Czech Republic
Yes, English is spoken in the Czech Republic. The Czech Republic has a long history of English proficiency, dating back to the time when it was a part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. English is also one of the official languages of the Czech Republic, along with Czech.
How is English spoken in Czech Republic? A quarter to a third of Czech citizens have the ability to speak English at a higher level. In Prague, there is less English presence than in other parts of the country. The capitals main tourist attractions should be fine for you to use English. Tourists will find that there are numerous English guides and instructions available at these locations, as well as people who will speak English. English is most commonly used in the areas where it is less common than in the rest of Eastern Europe. When asking for directions and advice, it is best to avoid asking someone over the age of 30.
Slovakian, in addition to being a West Slavic language, is also a Czech language. Czechs are very friendly and always willing to help you if you have a problem. The Mondly language learning app allows you to learn 41 languages on any device, making it the ideal language learning app.
Don’t Miss: 5 Languages Of Appreciation In Workplace
Language Of The Records
A basic knowledge of a few languages is required to read Czech records. Obtain a copy of the various genealogical lists available at the FamilySearch Library or click on the links below.
Helpful publications at the FamilySearch Library are:
- Paez, Jan. esko-anglický píruní slovník genealogický = Handy Czech-English genealogical dictionary. Praha: Scriptorium, 1999. .This dictionary is a must for the Czech researchers when records and documents are written in Czech. It includes occupations, causes of death etc. Supplements include Czech alphabet, a dictionary of personal names and a dictionary of supreme land and court offices.
- Lutonský, Boleslav. Lexikon genealoga. . Praha: B. Lutonský, c2003. . Genealogical vocabulary that includes not only old-fashioned expressions that the researcher may encounter in their work, but also terms used in archival material , overview of guilds, and important crafts. It also includes a chapter on measurements, a chapter on currency and a list of frequently used abbreviations. Text in Czech.
- Lutonský, Boleslav/erný, Jaroslav. Latinsko-nmecko-eský slovník nemocí, úraz a píin smrti: a výraz s nimi souvisejících pro genealogy. for genealogists). Praha: Ringier R, 1995. . Causes of death as recorded in the death registers in Latin, German and Czech with their Czech translations.
Demographics Of The Czech Republic
|Czech Republic population pyramid in 2020|
|8.9 births/1,000 population|
|Death rate||10.7 deaths/1,000 population|
|1.83 children born/woman|
|Infant mortality rate||2.6 deaths/1,000 live births|
|Net migration rate||2.3 migrant/1,000 population|
This article is about the demographic features of the population of the Czech Republic, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, and religious affiliations.
Recommended Reading: Landmark Freedom Of Speech Cases
Sentence And Clause Structure
Because Czech uses grammatical case to convey word function in a sentence , its word order is flexible. As a pro-drop language, in Czech an intransitive sentence can consist of only a verb information about its subject is encoded in the verb. Enclitics appear in the second syntactic slot of a sentence, after the first stressed unit. The first slot can contain a subject or object, a main form of a verb, an adverb, or a conjunction .
Czech syntax has a subjectverbobject sentence structure. In practice, however, word order is flexible and used to distinguish topic and focus, with the topic or theme preceding the focus or rheme in a sentence Czech has therefore been described as a topic-prominent language. Although Czech has a periphrasticpassive construction , in colloquial style, word-order changes frequently replace the passive voice. For example, to change “Peter killed Paul” to “Paul was killed by Peter” the order of subject and object is inverted: Petr zabil Pavla becomes “Paul, Peter killed” . Pavla is in the accusative case, the grammatical object of the verb.
A word at the end of a clause is typically emphasized, unless an upward intonation indicates that the sentence is a question:
- Pes jí bagetu. The dog eats the baguette .
- Bagetu jí pes. The dog eats the baguette .
- Pes bagetu jí. The dog eats the baguette .
- Jí pes bagetu? Does the dog eat the baguette?
Official Language Of The Czech Republic
The origin of the Czech language is traced back to the 9th and 10th centuries, when Czech and Slovak branched from the West Slavic language group. During this period through to the 20th century, the Czech language was known as Bohemian language. The earliest records written in Czech appeared in the 13th and 14th centuries. A statement in the 13th century Litomerice charter is the oldest known complete sentence written in the language. The 14th century was the period when the language was further developed and was also the period when the Bible was first translated completely to Czech. The first attempt at the standardization of Czech orthography was made during the Bohemian Reformation of the 15th century. The modern standardized Czech language emerged in the late 18th century and early 19th century, as the country was undergoing the Czech National Revival. The standardization was primarily based on a publication by Josef Dobrovsky, a 19th-century linguist.
Read Also: Change Language On Android Keyboard
Infrastructure And Natural Resources
In 1972, the country began construction of a electricity-generation station at on the River , following a unanimous vote in parliament. However, in 1978, a voted approximately 50.5% against nuclear power, 49.5% for, and parliament subsequently unanimously passed a law forbidding the use of nuclear power to generate electricity although the nuclear power plant was already finished.
Austria currently produces more than half of its electricity by . Together with other sources such as , and powerplants, the electricity supply from renewable energy amounts to 62.89% of total use in Austria, with the rest being produced by and power plants.
Compared to most European countries, Austria is ecologically well endowed. Its is more than double of the world average: In 2016, Austria had 3.8 global hectares of biocapacity per person within its territory, compared to the world average of 1.6 global hectares per person. In contrast, in 2016, they used 6.0 global hectares of biocapacity – their of consumption. This means that Austrians use about 60 percent more biocapacity than Austria contains. As a result, Austria is running a biocapacity deficit.
Things You Did Not Know About Czech
Also Check: Free Printable Easter Speeches For Youth
Education And Health Care
Education in the Czech Republic is compulsory for nine years and citizens have access to a , while the average number of years of education is 13.1. Additionally, the Czech Republic has a “relatively equal” educational system in comparison with other countries in Europe. Founded in 1348, was the first university in . Other major universities in the country are , , , and .
The , coordinated by the , currently ranks the Czech education system as the 15th most successful in the world, higher than the OECD average. The UN ranks the Czech Republic 10th as of 2013 .
Health care in the Czech Republic is similar in quality to that of other developed nations. The Czech system is based on a , with care funded by mandatory employment-related insurance plans. According to the 2016 , a comparison of , the Czech healthcare is 13th, ranked behind and two positions ahead of the .
A Quick History Of The Czech Language
Czech is the main language in the Czech Republic, spoken by around ten million people. . It is a Slavonic language, very closely related to Slovak , and similar to Polish and Russian. Although Czech may sound baffling to many a Western-European or American visiting the Czech Republic, it is an Indo-European language like French, German or English.
If you are familiar with Latin, then Czech grammar won’t seem unfamiliar, especially its complex system of different noun cases, which are very intimidating to many learners of Czech.
It is hard to say precisely how old the Czech language is, but it is known that Slavs first settled this part of Europe around the sixth century, and the first written Slav language here was Old Church Slavonic, brough in the 9th century by the two Byzantine missionaries, Cyril and Methodius. But the main literary language for most of the Mediaeval period was Latin.
Under communist rule – from 1948-1989 – the authorities often used the Czech language as a political tool, putting great stress on its similarities to Russian. Since the fall of communism the pendulum has swung the other way. There has been a dramatic increase in the number of Anglicisms in modern Czech, many connected with the world of business, retail, computers or popular culture.
Read Also: Speech Pathology Online Masters Degree