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Different Types Of Speech Disorders

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If your speech center is obstructed, it is possible that aphasia will occur at any time. Aphasia can affect ones brain permanently, or it can affect ones brain temporarily and be caused by a variety of temporary environmental conditions.

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Types Of Speech And Language Disorders

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On the evening of September 3, 1939 the day the United Kingdom declared war on Germany King George VI delivered a speech to the people of his country. He began, In this grave hour, perhaps the most fateful in our history, I send to every household of my peoples, both at home and overseas, this message, spoken with the same depth of feeling for each one of you as if I were able to cross your threshold and speak to you myself. The speech not only comforted and galvanized a nation but also prompted other political leaders to support the Allied Forces, leading to Germanys eventual defeat in World War II.

Just as impressive as the inspiring delivery of his message was the kings journey to the podium. George VI had suffered from a debilitating stutter that impeded his ability to speak, particularly in public. The 2010 film The Kings Speech documented his journey with speech therapist Lionel Logue as they worked through innovative methods to overcome the speech disorder.

The Difference Between Articulation And Phonological Disorders

An articulation disorder is a difficulty at a phonetic level, using motor skills. Kids with this disorder have trouble making individual speech sounds.

A phonological disorder is a difficulty at the phonemic level, in a person’s brain. They can say sounds correctly but struggle to form them into words.

Compared to articulation disorders, it’s often more difficult to understand someone with a phonological disorder. Many children with phonological disorders and phonemic awareness disorders also have trouble with language and literacy, which can affect their experience in the classroom.

Distinguishing between articulation and phonological disorders isn’t always easy. However, a proper diagnosis is extremely important, since it will largely determine a persons speech therapy treatment plan. If you suspect your child has a speech sound disorder, its important to receive an evaluation from a certified speech-language pathologist, more commonly referred to as a speech therapist.

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What Disabilities Cause Speech Problems

The common causes of speech and language disorders include hearing loss, neurological disorders, brain injury, intellectual disabilities, drug abuse, physical impairments such as cleft lip or palate, and vocal abuse or misuse. However, this condition can go on indefinitely and the cause is unknown at times.

Speech disorders in children differ from language disorders in adults. Speech disorders are conditions in which a person has difficulty creating or forming the speech sounds that they require to communicate. A childs speech and language are common causes of problems during the preschool years. Speech therapy may be beneficial for patients who have more severe symptoms or are experiencing speech problems that do not respond to treatment. Social interactions may become difficult when you are unable to communicate effectively due to a speech disorder. More effective treatments are likely to be given at an early stage. Hearing loss, which is a risk factor for speech disorders, can be disabling.

The Many Benefits Of Speech Therapy For Children

Speech Sound Errors. Articulation disorders and phonological disorders ...

Speech sound disorder affects children in some way, impairing their ability to communicate. Mild forms of the disorder are usually gone on their own by the age of six or seven. More severe symptoms or speech problems that do not improve with treatment may be treated through speech therapy. The child may be able to make sounds by undergoing therapy. Speech-language pathologists can help a child develop a communication skill that will improve his or her ability to communicate.

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Phonological Disorder: What You Should Know

Phonological disorders affect the ability to recognize or produce sounds. It is more common in boys, and it can be caused by a variety of factors, including a history of language and speech disorders, hearing loss, developmental delays, genetic diseases, and neurological disorders. phonological disorders, while often associated with articulation problems, are not always associated with them. In contrast to the two, a child with articulation disorders may struggle to form speech sounds properly, whereas a child with phonological disorders may be able to use sounds properly but may use them incorrectly. Despite the fact that phonological disorder is not always a learning disability, it is more likely to affect a child with a history of difficulty learning to read or spell if they have struggled with these skills at a young age. Long-term speech therapy may be appropriate if your child has a phonological problem.

Diagnosing Different Speech Impairments

In addition to evaluating whether a disfluency is typical or atypical, speech-language pathologists also must determine whether the concern is a speech disfluency at all.

The issue could instead be related to a reading disorder, challenges in learning a new language, or a different type of disorder. Movements that could be tied to stuttering, for example, might instead be the result of , a disease that causes an inability to control or coordinate ones movements.

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What Causes Aphasia Besides Stroke

Aphasia usually develops suddenly, and it can occur as a result of a stroke or head injury, but it can also occur slowly as a result of a brain tumor or a progressive neurological disease. As a result of the disorder, language and reading and writing are impaired.

Aphasia: The Best Predictor Of Long-term Prognosis

Some patients, on the other hand, have more difficult outcomes. The rate of language decline is especially rapid in patients with Alzheimers or other dementias who have a genetic connection to these diseases . Aphasias severity at the time of diagnosis is one of the most important predictors of long-term progess. Even so, even in patients with more severe aphasia, the majority of them improve. , from the book The Science of Reason. There is no single, straightforward answer to the question of how long a person requires speech and language therapy to improve their language skills. Aphasia can progress over time, but most people who have aphasia improve within a few months and plateau.

Symptoms And Characteristics Of Disfluencies

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These are some of the characteristics of disfluencies:

  • Repeating certain phrases, words, or sounds after the age of 4
  • Adding in extra sounds or words into sentences
  • Elongating words
  • Replacing words
  • Hesitating while speaking
  • Pausing mid-speech

In addition, someone with disfluencies may also experience the following symptoms while speaking:

  • Vocal tension and strain

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Impact Of Speech Disorders

Some speech disorders have little impact on socialization and daily activities, but other conditions can make some tasks difficult for individuals. Following are a few of the impacts of speech impediments.

  • Poor communication Children may be unable to participate in certain learning activities, such as answering questions or reading out loud, due to communication difficulties. Adults may avoid work or social activities such as giving speeches or attending parties.
  • Mental health and confidence Speech disorders may cause children or adults to feel different from peers, leading to a lack of self-confidence and, potentially, self-isolation.

Resources on Speech Disorders

The following resources may help those who are seeking more information about speech impediments.

Health Information: Information and statistics on common voice and speech disorders from the NIDCD

Speech Disorders: Information on childhood speech disorders from Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center

Speech, Language, and Swallowing: Resources about speech and language development from the ASHA

Most Common Types Of Speech And Language Disorders

The ability of speech enables us to interact with the world around us learn from it, bond with it, contribute to it and be a part of it. Its an ability thats programmed to develop naturally within us and yet, in some children, this ability doesnt progress as well as its expected to. Speech disorders are common in todays world and 1 in 12 kids and teens in the US are affected by the disability to make fluent communication. At Milestone Therapy Group, were committed to helping children affected by varying types of speech disorders through licensed and certified speech therapists with considerable experience in handling speech disabilities. Heres a short compilation of the most common speech disorders afflicting children in America today.

Stuttering or Stammering

This is perhaps the easiest to spot among a range of speech disorders. And fortunately, also the least worrisome. Close to 10% of American children get affected by stuttering at some point, between the ages of 3 and 6 years. The good news is, a large percentage of these children are cured of this speech disorder by the time they turn into adults. But yes, both children and parents do have to go through the phase of social awkwardness, the extent of which would vary from child to child.



Speech Delay Alalia

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What Is Speech Impairment

People who have speech impairments have a hard time pronouncing different speech sounds. They might distort the sounds of some words and leave other sounds out completely.

There are three general categories of speech impairment:

  • Fluency disorder. This type can be described as an unusual repetition of sounds or rhythm.
  • Voice disorder. A voice disorder means you have an atypical tone of voice. It could be an unusual pitch, quality, resonance, or volume.
  • Articulation disorder. If you have an articulation disorder, you might distort certain sounds. You could also fully omit sounds.

Stuttering, or stammering, is a common fluency disorder that affects three million Americans. It usually affects young children who are just learning to speak, but it can continue on into adulthood.

Speech and language impairments are two words that are often used interchangeably, but they are two very different types of problems.

Speech means talking. It uses the jaw muscles, tongue, lips, and vocal chords. Language is a set of words and symbols made to communicate a message. Language and speech disorders can affect you separately, or both can happen at the same time.

Whats The Difference Between A Speech Impediment And A Language Disorder

The 3 Types Of Speech Sound Disorders

A speech impediment happens when your childs mouth, jaw, tongue and vocal tract cant work together to produce recognizable words. A language disorder happens when your child has trouble understanding what’s being said or people have trouble understanding what your child is saying. For example, your child might use one word when they mean to use another word. They might also say words out of order.

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What Every Parent Should Know

Children with specific learning disabilities, including language or speech disorders, are eligible for special education services or accommodations at school under the Individuals with Disabilities in Education Act external icon and Section 504external icon, an anti-discrimination law.

Is Phonological Disorder A Learning Disability

When a child is learning to read or spell, he or she is more likely to develop problems later in life, and learning disabilities in general may occur at a later age. When a speech pathologist diagnoses your child with a phonological issue, you should be prepared for the possibility of a long-term commitment to speech therapy.

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Speech Disorder Tips For Families

For parents who are concerned that their child might have a speech disorder or who want to prevent the development of a disorder there are a number of activities that can help. The following are tasks that parents can engage in on a regular basis to develop literacy and speech skills.

  • Introducing new vocabulary words
  • Pointing to words while reading books
  • Pointing out words and sentences in objects and signs
  • Parents can take the following steps to make sure that potential speech impediments are identified early on.

  • Discussing concerns with physicians
  • Asking for hearing, vision, and speech screenings from doctors
  • Requesting special education assessments from school officials
  • Requesting a referral to a speech-language pathologist, audiologist, or other specialist
  • When a child is engaged in speech therapy, speech-language pathologists will typically establish collaborative relationships with families, sharing information and encouraging parents to participate in therapy decisions and practices.

    SLPs will work with patients and their families to set goals for therapy outcomes. In addition to therapy sessions, they may develop activities and exercises for families to work on at home. It is important that caregivers are encouraging and patient with children during therapy.

    Resources for Parents on How to Fix a Speech Impediment

    The following resources provide additional information on treatment options for speech disorders.

    The Five Most Common Speech Disorders In Adults

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    1. Stuttering

    It may come as a surprise that many famous actors and entertainers experienced stuttering, including James Earl Jones.

    According to the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, stuttering often begins in childhood and can last throughout someones life. Early intervention is vital in order to correct the problem.


    While researchers havent pinpointed an exact cause of stuttering, they believe there may be a genetic componentthose who stutter tend to have family members who stutter.

    Stuttering issues can also be compounded by external factors. Teasing from others and embarrassment contribute to anxiety, which in turn, tightens speech muscles.


    Treatment involves working with a speech pathologist. These professionals work with both adults and children to treat speech, language and swallowing disorders.

    Those who stutter work to control their speech rate and monitor breathing. As they practice these techniques, speech will improve over time.

    2. Apraxia

    If you have apraxia, your tongue and lips arent able to move in the correct way to produce sounds. In extreme cases, apraxia can render someone unable to speak at all. Apraxia also involves saying made up words or saying chicken for kitchen, according to information from the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.


    3. Dysarthria

    • Spasmodic dysphonia

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    Organic Speech Sound Disorders

    Often, the cause of a speech sound disorder isn’t known. The exception is organic speech sound disorders, which do tend to have a known cause. These fall into several categories:

    • Motor/neurological:Motor speech disorders occur when muscle coordination or strength is impacted. Motor speech disorders can be developmental or acquired after neurological damage, such as a stroke or traumatic brain injury.

    • Structural:Differences in oral and facial structures can impact speech sound production, such as for children with cleft lip and palate. These structural differences can also be caused by trauma or surgery.

    • Sensory/perceptual:Hearing impairment can cause speech sound difficulties, as children arent able to hear sounds the way others produce them. Depending on the severity of the hearing loss, the impact on speech may vary.

    Common Signs Of A Speech Disorder

    There are several symptoms and indicators that can point to a speech disorder.

    • Unintelligible speech A speech disorder may be present when others have difficulty understanding a persons verbalizations.
    • Omitted sounds This symptom can include the omission of part of a word, such as saying bo instead of boat, and may include omission of consonants or syllables.
    • Added sounds This can involve adding extra sounds in a word, such as buhlack instead of black, or repeating sounds like b-b-b-ball.
    • Substituted sounds When sounds are substituted or distorted, such as saying wabbit instead of rabbit, it may indicate a speech disorder.
    • Use of gestures When individuals use gestures to communicate instead of words, a speech impediment may be the cause.
    • Inappropriate pitch This symptom is characterized by speaking with a strange pitch or volume.

    In children, signs might also include a lack of babbling or making limited sounds. Symptoms may also include the incorrect use of specific sounds in words, according to the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association . This may include the sounds p, m, b, w, and h among children aged 1-2, and k, f, g, d, n, and t for children aged 2-3.

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    What Are Speech Disfluencies Typical Vs Atypical Disfluencies

    Most people occasionally struggle with speech fluency, especially when theyre feeling anxious, experiencing stress, or trying to convey a complex concept.

    These infrequent interruptions in fluency, known as typical disfluencies, can include adding or repeating words or fillers such as like or uh. They also can include prolonged sounds or blocks in which the individual seemingly cannot speak.

    Young children commonly exhibit speech disfluencies, with the most prevalent symptoms shifting according to age.

    • Children between 18 months and 3 years old typically exhibit speech disfluencies about once every 10 sentences as they learn to talk. They repeat sounds, syllables, and words, particularly when starting sentences.
    • Children older than 3 are less likely to repeat sounds or syllables. Instead, as they work to rapidly develop their speech abilities, they may use filler words and sounds, switch topics midsentence, shift the order of a sentence, or leave a thought unfinished.

    Most children can easily use language by age 5. Typical disfluencies can continue to occur at any time, however, particularly for children who are experiencing feelings such as fatigue, excitement, or unhappiness, or if they are rushed. These disfluencies may occur regularly for days or weeks and then decrease or disappear, returning later.

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